…the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant. He cannot rightfully be compelled to do or forbear because it will be better for him to do so, because it will make him happier, because, in the opinions of others, to do so would be wise, or even right.—John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, 1859
We must proclaim the mission and the design of a United Europe whose moral conception will win the respect and gratitude of mankind, and whose physical strength will be such that none will dare molest her tranquil sway. I hope to see a Europe where men and women of every country will think of being European as of belonging to their native land, and wherever they go in this wide domain will truly feel “Here I am at home.”—Winston Churchill, The Hague, May 1948
It will not do to give the usual quibbling answer, “I refuse to choose.” In the end the choice may be forced upon us. We are no longer strong enough to stand alone. If we fail to bring a Western European union into being, we shall be obliged, in the long run, to subordinate our policy to one Great Power or another.—George Orwell, In Defence of Comrade Zilliacus, 1947
Role of NATO on the Russian periphery:
- Brown Journal of World Affairs, Spring/Summer 2009: Georgian and Ukrainian Conflicts: The Limitations of NATO
- Globe and Mail (Canada), 28 August 2008: That Caucasus hypocrisy
- Globe and Mail (Canada), 17 March 2008: A Swiss prescription for what ails Belgium
- Globe and Mail (Canada), 2 November 2007: Why no equal rights for Serbs?
Europe and the United States:
- Los Angeles Times, 6 July 2003: European electoral systems, with ‘31 flavors,’ offer citizens better representation: ‘Baskin-Robbins’ Voting
- International Herald Tribune, 4 April 2003: Though France took the heat for its promised veto of the U.S. war resolution on Iraq, it was Mexico and Chile that defeated it: U.S. neighbors turn away – the wages of indifference
- Arizona Daily Star, 2 February 2003: What is "old"and what is "new" in Europe — “New” Europe has little use for “old” U.S. attitudes
- Pacific News Service, 3 October 2001: From a European perspective, the US is in some ways disturbingly similar to its fundamentalist adversaries: Quid Pro Quo — Europe Needs U.S. to Recognize EU Power
- Miami Herald, 10 May 2002: US opposition to International Criminal Court hurting relations with Europe: Reconsider U.S. Stand: Bush is wrong on international court
- Pacific News Service, 5 July 2001: U.S.’ Role In Serb Leader’s Trial Makes International Justice System Inevitable
- Globe and Mail, 27 January 2000: Europe assuming mantle of global human rights leadership: The human-rights verdict is in: Europe wins: The U.S. Supreme Court has been overtaken as the world’s premier arbiter of justice
- San Antonio Express-News, 22 May 2002: Can Europe keep its Western values with unassimilated immigrants?
A Growing European Union:
- Chicago Tribune, 6 January 2002: It’s not just about the euro: EU in position to be world’s next superpower
Europe and Islam:
- Globe and Mail, 25 July 2002: Spain and Morocco: Franco’s ghosts: Why a certain barren islet won’t go away
- Fresno Bee, 30 June 2002: Israel and Palestine: Swiss set good example for a new Palestine-Israel
The European Bill of Rights:
- Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2009)
- European Convention on Human Rights, ETS #005, ratified by (maps | table)
Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (includes commitment to democracy), ETS #009, ratified by (maps | table)
- European Social Charter (revised), ETS #163, ratified by (maps | tables)
On the meaning of freedom:
- John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, 1859.
Keeping political discourse honest:
- George Orwell, Politics and the English Language, 1946.
An early vision of a united Europe:
George Orwell, Toward European Unity, 1947.